Study of effects of Municipal solid waste on water quality of Dehradun City

Ritesh Saini, Nihal Anwar Siddiqui, Kanchan Deoli Bahukhandi, Neelu J Ahuja,JECET; June 2018- August 2018; Sec. A; Vol.7. No.3, 409-416.[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.3.40916]

Abstract

The leachate produced by waste disposal sites contains a large amount of substances which are likely to contaminate ground water. The impact of such sites upon ground water can be judged by monitoring the concentration of potential contaminants at a number of specific monitoring points. In this study, the quality of ground water around a legal and illegal municipal solid waste disposal site in Dehradun was investigated. Physical and Chemical analysis were carried out on water samples collected at different sites. The physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, hardness, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, alkalinity, calcium magnesium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and the heavy metals like iron, copper, lead, cadmium etc. were studied using various analytical techniques. It has been found that most of the parameters of water are not in the acceptable limit in accordance with the BIS drinking water quality Standards. The study has revealed that the ground water quality deteriorates greatly due to disposal of municipal solid wastes. The effects of dumping activity on ground water appeared most clearly as high concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness, chlorides, nitrates and sulphates. The study clearly indicates that in densely populated growing urban cities should have the ground water monitored on regular basis. Furthermore, ground water in and around the dumping sites shall not be used for drinking purposes unless it meets specific standards. Indiscriminate dumping of wastes in developed areas without proper solid waste management practices should be stopped.

Water Stability Studies of different Probiotic Aqua Feed Pellets

K. Sivagami and J. Ronald , JECET; June 2018- August 2018; Sec. A; Vol.7. No.3, 399-408.[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.3.39908]

Abstract

Water stability is an important physical property a feed for aquatic species. It is defined as the retention of the pellet integrity with minimal disintegration and nutrient leaching. Water stability of feed pellets prepared for fishes is especially important because the pellets should remain intact in water until it is ingested. The water stability of the feed pellet depends primarily on how well the individual ingredient binds together. A good aqua feed should have good water stability in order to reduce nutrient leaching and prevent water pollution. This study aims to evaluate the percentage of water stability in water for 60 minutes. At the first 10 minutes, the stability of all probiotic bacteria diet ranged between 90.66 ± 2.08 and 93.00 ± 2.00%, whereas the stability of probiotic spirulina pellets ranged from 92.00 ± 1.93 to 95.00 ± 1.00%and probiotic yeast feed pellets stability ranged between 87.00 ± 1.61 and 91.33 ±1.55.At the end of experimental hour (60 minutes) the results of the water stability test indicated that control feed was least stable (40.00 ±1.00) than the experimental feeds. Among the all experimental feeds, the superior percentage of stability 68.00 ±3.61 was recorded in probiotic spirulina PS5 feed at 60 minutes immersion. The poor stability was 51.33± 1.52; 55.33± 2.08 and 44.66± 1.53 in PB1, PS1 and PY1 feed types respectively

Comparative Evaluation of the Cyanide and Heavy Metal Levels in Traditionally Processed Cassava Meal Products Sold Within Enugu Metropolis

Ezeh E., Okeke O., Aburu C.M. and Anya O.U, JECET; June 2018- August 2018; Sec. A; Vol.7. No.3, 390-398. ,[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.339098.]

Abstract

Studies were carried out to comparatively evaluate the cyanide and heavy metal levels in traditionally processed cassava meal products (abacha, akpu and garri) sold within Enugu Metropolis using relevant analytical procedures and instrumentation. The mean levels of cyanide in the abacha, akpu and garri samples sold within Enugu metropolis were, 11.07, 6.84 and 9.22ppm respectively. Only the mean cyanide levels in abacha samples sold within the metropolis was above the maximum safe intake limits of 10ppm in cyanide containing food/feed for human and animals. The levels of cyanide in the samples were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb and Fe were all detected at non-toxic levels in the traditionally processed cassava meal product sold within Enugu metropolis. The mean levels of the metals in akpu were significantly higher than in the other studied samples sold within the metropolis (p < 0.05). Varying periods of fermentation, soil chemistry and ecology was attributed to be responsible for the varying levels of cyanide in the samples. Contamination during processing and in the soil where the cassava were harvested could have significantly influenced the levels of the studied heavy metals in the samples.

Solar-Light-Induced Photocatalytic Properties of Novel MnV2O6/TiO2 Nanocomposite.

S. Rajendra Prasad, S. Srikantaswamy, K. Jagadish, M. R. Abhilash, M. B. Nayan, JECET; June 2018 - August 2018; Section A; Vol.7. No.3, 383-391.[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.3.38391

Abstract

High quality MnV2O6/TiO2 nanocomposite was synthesized by simple and cost effective route hydrothermal method. As synthesized nanocomposites were characterized by different advanced analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier Transform Infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometer for the investigation of crystalline, morphology, elemental percentage, particle size distribution, functional group and optical properties respectively. Further the photo-catalytic properties of as synthesized MnV2O6/TiO2 nanocomposite were characterized by using Tauc plot (2.9 band gap energy). It was found that the methylene blue dye degraded to high (~90) percentage in the presence of photocatalyst MnV2O6/TiO2 nanocomposite under solar light irradiation.

Infrastructural Development and Improving Livelihoods of Rural People in Nepal: A Case Study of Kanchanpur District Nepal

Ishwor Datt Awasthi,JECET; June 2018- August 2018; Sec. A; Vol.7. No.3, 372-382.[DOI: 10.24214/jecet.A.7.3.37282]

Abstract

Infrastructure is the vital prerequisite and utmost essential element of physical change and social development. It is a backbone of economic development as well as, is a catalytic component for progress and welfare in the lives of rural poor residents. In this connection, the infrastructural development play a crucial role in reducing poverty and lay down the foundation stone intended for rural development and economic acceleration in remote areas. In every society of the developing and underdeveloped third world, there is need of proper infrastructural development, in this study the relationship between availability of infrastructures and quality of living along with means of subsistence is analyzed in concrete ways. This study summarizes that abundance number of basic infrastructures like drinking water, transportation, irrigation, information and communication, health services and educational facilities has the great influence on the better living conditions and livelihoods of poor people. In essence, the presence of indispensable rural infrastructures has significant impact on the livelihoods of rural people in Nepal.